The modified saying Music soothes the savage beast may have new applications in the modern world of medicine. New research suggests that music may help some children experience less discomfort when dealing with low level or moderate pain.
Many adults and kids have switched to diet drinks to help reduce their calorie intake. In fact, children who drink sugar-free beverages have doubled in the past 10 years according to a study released in 2012.
Our typical sizzling summer has officially begun and temperatures are rising across the nation. My thermostat isn't reading as hot as some places like southern California (currently 114 degrees), but it's still pretty toasty outside.
Kids get runny noses. But is it caused by allergies, a simple cold or something more serious like a sinus infection? If your child has a history of sinus infections, a new review of clinical guidelines may be just what the doctor ordered.
When brothers and sisters pick on, harass, hit, punch, kick, insult and generally harass other siblings they're not typically identified as bullies. The response is more often kids will be kids.
On Monday, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released a report saying that, in the United States, 2012 was the deadliest year on record for deaths attributed to the West Nile virus.
Texas led the nation, compromising 33 percent of all reported cases with 1,868 infections and 89 deaths. That was far above California, which had the second most reported cases at 479 and 20 deaths.
In the majority of West Nile virus cases, most people experience only minor symptoms such as fever and a mild headache. However, some people who become infected with the virus develop a life-threatening illness that includes inflammation of the brain.
Serious symptoms can include:
- High fever
- Severe headache
- Stiff neck
- Disorientation or confusion
- Stupor or coma
- Tremors or muscle jerking
- Lack of coordination
- Partial paralysis or sudden muscle weakness
Signs and symptoms of West Nile fever usually last a few days, but signs and symptoms of encephalitis or meningitis can linger for weeks, and certain neurological effects, such as muscle weakness, may be permanent.
If you or a family member experience any of these more severe symptoms see a physician immediately.
The CDC's Dr. Lyle Petersen says it's impossible to know what West Nile will do this summer. "It is very hard to predict," he said in a telephone interview with NBC News. "I can't tell you what the weather is going to be like this summer, for example." The virus is driven by weather; it's worse during hot, wet summers in temperate climates.
"What last summer's outbreak tells us is that West Nile is not going to go away," Petersen said. "Most places in the United States are at risk of having outbreaks."
Currently, there is no vaccine against the virus for people. Most infections occur in the warmer months when mosquitoes are active.
Adults over 50 ar
Before it has a chance to fly off the shelves, Wrigley has decided to stop production, sales and marketing of their new caffeinated gum. The company's decision comes after meetings with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The government agency shared its concerns about the possible effects of caffeinated gum on children and adolescents.
Alert Energy Caffeine Gum was introduced into the marketplace less than a month ago. One piece contains 40 milligrams of caffeine, about the same amount that's typically in a half-cup of coffee.
The gum was available in 2 flavors: mint and fruit. Once someone starts chewing the gum, caffeine is released into the saliva. Some of it is swallowed and some goes directly into the bloodstream through the cheeks or from under the tongue.
"The FDA applauds Wrigley's decision and its recognition that we need to improve understanding and, as needed, strengthen the regulatory framework governing the appropriate levels and uses of caffeine in foods and beverages," said Michael Taylor, deputy commissioner for foods and veterinary medicine. "The company's action demonstrates real leadership and commitment to the public health. We hope others in the food industry will exercise similar restraint."
Wrigley released its own statement about why they made their decision.
"When Wrigley launched Alert Energy Caffeine Gum, we took great strides to ensure that the product was formulated, distributed and marketed in a safe and responsible way to consumers 25 years old and over," Wrigley President Casey Keller said. "After discussions with the FDA, we have a greater appreciation for its concern about the proliferation of caffeine in the nation's food supply. There is a need for changes in the regulatory framework to better guide the consumers and the industry about the appropriate level and use of caffeinated products."
Caffeine seems to be the new marketing chemical of choice for just about anything you can p
10 to 20 percent of children have common skin warts, but where do they come from? Old wives tales and folklore suggest they come from touching frogs or toads, but I think we've all grown past that as an explanation. Actually, warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). They form when the virus gets into the skin, usually through a cut or scratch. The virus causes the rapid growth of cells on the outer layer of skin and once formed, they can be rough or smooth to the touch.
How do children get warts? A recent study found that elementary age children are most likely to catch the virus from family members or at school.
The study was led by, Sjoerd C. Bruggink, MD, Department of Public Health and Primary Care at Leiden University in the Netherlands. He and his team looked at how warts are commonly spread. They focused on HPV, but not the strains transmitted through sexual activity.
The study looked at 1,000 children ages 4 to 12. Researchers looked for warts on the children's hands and feet, and recorded information such as whether any family members or classmates had warts, whether the children walked barefoot at home, and whether they visited public swimming pools, used public showers or played sports barefoot. At a follow-up exam a year later, the children were re-examined for warts.
Overall, 29 percent of the children in the study developed new warts during the year. Researchers said that children who had warts at the start of the study were more likely to develop new warts than were children who had no warts at the beginning of the study.
The investigators noted that the susceptibility to developing warts may run in families. The study found that children who had family members with warts were twice as likely to develop warts.
20 percent of the children were more likely to get them from classmates who had warts.
Prevention should be aimed at reducing transmission within families and classes, the researchers s
The dreary days of winter are quickly giving way to longer hours of daylight. Kids will soon be swimming, biking, playing sports and enjoying all the other advantages that more sunshine and warmer weather offers. Theyll also be absorbing more UVA and UVB rays.
While skin cancer in children is rare, and melanoma " the deadliest form of skin cancer- is even more unusual, more cases are being reported according to a new study. The rates increased by about 2% per year from 1973 to 2009 in U.S. children ages newborn to 19. Melanoma accounts for up to 3 percent of all pediatric cancers, according to the Skin Cancer Foundation.
As you might expect, the largest increase was seen in teenage girls from 15 to19 years old. Girls tend to lay out in the sun or visit tanning booths more often than boys. Girls are more likely to have melanomas on their lower legs and hips while boys melanomas are typically found on the face and trunk.
Recent studies have also shown that melanoma is on the rise among adults as well. Exactly what is driving these trends is not fully understood, but increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation from both the sun and tanning booths as well as greater awareness of melanoma may be responsible, according to study authors led by Jeannette Wong of the U.S. National Cancer Institute.
Skin cancer looks pretty much the same in children as it does in adults. Parents should routinely check any moles or changes in their childs skin.
Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer. It is highly treatable, grows very slowly and is located on the top layer of skin. It usually appears as a small, shiny bump or nodule on the skin, mainly those areas exposed to the sun, such as the head, neck, arms, hands, and face. It more commonly occurs among people with light-colored eyes, hair, and complexion.
Squamous cell carcinoma is a more aggressive skin cancer but
If a child is diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), will he or she eventually outgrow it or continue with the condition into adulthood?
A new study shows that nearly 30% will continue to struggle with ADHD, and may develop other mental health issues.
"We suffer from the misconception that ADHD is just an annoying childhood disorder thats over treated," researcher William Barbaresi, MD, of Boston Childrens Hospital, says in a prepared statement. "This couldnt be further from the truth. We need to have a chronic-disease approach to ADHD as we do for diabetes. The system of care has to be designed for the long haul."
The study included 5,700 adults. Two groups were created: one group had been diagnosed during childhood with ADHD, and the other group grew up without ADHD.
Out of 367 participants who had childhood ADHD, 232 were followed into adulthood. At age 27, nearly 30% had adult ADHD.
Researchers also found that nearly 57% of the adults with childhood ADHD had at least one other mental health issue. 35% of the adults without childhood ADHD also had one or more mental health issues.
Substance abuse or dependence (26%), antisocial personality disorder (17%), other substance abuse/dependence (16%), hypomanic episodes (15%), anxiety disorder (14%) and major depression (13%) were the most common mental health issues experienced by adults diagnosed with childhood ADHD.
The researchers noted that death from suicide was nearly five times higher in this group.
Among all 367 adults with childhood ADHD, seven (1.9%) had died, three of them from suicide. Of 4,946 people without ADHD, only 37 (0.7%) had died, five by suicide.
Ten people whod had childhood ADHD (2.7%) were in jail at the time of recruitment for the study.
This study "speaks to the need to greatly improve the long-term treatment of children with ADHD and provide a mechanism for treating them as adults," r
I dont think this will come as a huge surprise to some people but many restaurant meals designed especially for kids contain way too much salt, calories and fat. What is surprising is how loaded some of these menu items really are. No caring parent wants their child to eat unhealthy foods and probably believe that a kids menu item is going to be a reasonable amount of calories and sodium. How bad can such a smaller meal be?
According to a study by the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), pretty bad.
The CSPI has long monitored the publics nutritional interest. They campaigned to bar sodium nitrates in bacon and other cured meats, pushed for sodium levels to be added to all food labels, obtained funding for more government food inspectors and prompted Congress to pass a law requiring notification of the presence of food allergens such as peanuts, wheat and milk on food labels to name just a few.
Now theyve turned to restaurant kids menu items. The group found that among almost 3,500 combinations surveyed, kids meals failed to meet nutritional standards 97% of the time. Thats actually an improvement though over 2008 - when meals failed to meet standards 99% of the time. Not much of a change in 5 years.
What were some of the restaurants surveyed? Popular chains such as Chipotle Mexican Grill, Dairy Queen, Hardee's, McDonald's, Panda Express, Perkins Family Restaurants and Popeyes.
Every kids meal fell-short of nutritional recommendations adopted by the center from the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
They also didnt meet the standards set by the National Restaurant Association's Kids LiveWell Program, said the CSPI, which titled its study, "Kids' Meals: Obesity on the Menu."
"Most chains seem stuck in a time warp, serving up the same old meals based on chicken nuggets, burgers, macaroni and cheese, fries, and soda," said Margo Wootan, CSPI nutrition policy director. "It's like the restaurant industry didn
By this time of year, many people are glad to see Winter's grumpy face retreat into the background and Spring's warm smile appear. But of course, Spring brings its own mischief for people who suffer from allergies.
In the coldest of climates, furnaces have been running pretty much non-stop and even in the warmer states at least a night- the heat is turned on and turned up.
Most everyone's home has been closed up and sealed tight to prevent cold air from entering or warm air from escaping which creates a perfect environment for indoor allergens.
The number one allergen is dust mites. These awful little creatures thrive in warm, humid places. Other allergens are house dust, cockroaches, mold spores, pet dander (dead skin cells) and even indoor plants.
You've probably heard of dust mites and have seen the magnified pictures that resemble alien looking spiders. You can't see them but they have 8 legs, are blind and naturally live indoors. If you have them (and you probably do) it doesn't mean your house is dirty, it just means that they are nearly impossible to eradicate completely. But you can cut down on how many you have and improve your indoor allergies.
They can't drink liquids so they survive on humidity. Their legs have little pads that help them attach to fibers in carpets, upholstery, mattresses, feather pillows, and stuffed animals. The less humidity in the house- the deeper they retreat into these places. What do they eat? They depend on human secretions and skin cells we shed. They love bedrooms where they can breed on mattresses, pillows, box springs, curtains, carpets, and any other fibers in the room.
Children are particularly susceptible to indoor allergens and you may notice that your child has watery eyes and trouble breathing when they've been in the house for a long period of time.
What can you do to help eliminate dust mites? One option is to move to a place where the elevation is over
No surprise here, but food for thought. A new report reveals a couple of connections, that with a little common sense you could probably figure out anyway, that have been confirmed in a scientific study.
According to the study, in the last 20 years, there has been a substantial rise in the consumption of sugary drinks in 2 to 11 year olds and children who drink these beverages ingest far more calories than children who don't.
Also, children who drink sugar-sweetened beverages eat more unhealthy foods than other children.
Sugar-sweetened beverages include sodas, fruit drinks, sports drinks and energy drinks.
Unhealthy foods are considered ones that contain high levels of solid fats, sodium and calories such as pizza, fast food hamburgers, cakes, cookies, pies, and fried foods.
Researchers analyzed data from nearly 11,000 U.S. children aged 2-18 years old who participated in national surveys from 2003-2010. During this time children's consumption of food and sugar-sweetened beverages increased, and the consumption of non-sweetened beverages decreased.
Breaking down the analysis even more, it was determined that the sugar-sweetened beverages were the primary cause of increased calories for children 2 to 11 years old.
The study is scheduled for publication (with greater detail) in the April issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
"Among all age groups analyzed, the energy density (calories per gram) of food consumed increased with higher sugar-sweetened beverage intake," lead investigator Kevin Mathias, of the department of nutrition at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, said in a journal news release.
Currently in New York City, there is a hotly contested debate over the legality of banning certain sized sugar-sweetened beverages. Some people feel it's a good idea to help combat the obesity epidemic and others believe that banning these drinks denies a person the r
When a child is in pain and crying, a loving parent wants nothing more than to make the pain go away. Ear infections can be very painful and often a parent will request antibiotics to treat the infection from their pediatrician or family doctor.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued new guidelines for identifying and treating childhood ear infections and would like to see fewer antibiotics prescribed.
The guidelines more clearly define the signs and symptoms that indicate an infection that needs treatment. They also encourage more observation, with follow-ups, instead of antibiotics. This would also include some children under the age of two. Most children with ear infections get well on their own and can be safely monitored for a few days.
For children with recurrent infections, the guidelines advise physicians and parents on when it is time to see a specialist.
"Between a more accurate diagnosis and the use of observation, we think we can greatly decrease the use of antibiotics," said the lead author of the new guidelines, Dr. Allan Lieberthal, a pediatrician at Kaiser Permanente Panorama City, in Los Angeles, and a clinical professor of pediatrics at the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California.
The guidelines say that there are definitely times when antibiotics should be prescribed such as when children have a severe ear infection. Severe is defined as when a child has either a fever of 102.2 degrees or higher or is in significant pain. He or she has a ruptured ear drum with drainage, or an infection in both ears for kids two years or younger. These account for fewer cases but studies have shown that children benefit from antibiotics given right away.
It's been since 2004 since the last set of guidelines were issued. Those guidelines stimulated new research that has provided evidence for the new AAP guidelines that will appear in the March issue of Pediatrics
Dancing is a wonderful artistic expression and kids have taken to tapping, pirouetting, Irish stepping and even ballroom dancing across the country. While it can be fun and great exercise, lots of these kids are being seriously injured.
Researchers at Nationwide Children's Hospital looked at a national database of emergency-department visits. What they found was that the most common dance-related injuries were sprains, strains and injuries from falls. The patients were between 15 and 19 years old.
The researchers said no one on the team is calling for parents to pull their children from dance classes, but that the results from their study suggests that instructors should look for ways to prevent injury in students who participate in the physically demanding activity.
About 113,100 children and teens were treated for dance injuries in U.S. emergency departments between 1991 and 2007, according to the research teams estimates. During that time, the number of cases in a year increased by more than 37 percent, to about 8,500 in 2007. This is the first study to examine dance-related injuries on a national level. It was published in the Journal of Physical Activity & Health.
With about 22,000 dance schools across the country, study author Kristen Roberts, said one reason for the increase in injuries may be that there are simply more children dancing.
Steps to prevent injury include stretching, staying hydrated, getting plenty of rest and using good form.
Eric Leighton, an athletic trainer with the Nationwide Children's sports-medicine program, works with dancers regularly and said that repetition and fatigue often lead to injury.
Whether it's a pitcher throwing a lot of pitches in one inning or a dancer repeating a dance, as the muscles get tired, some of the coordination and the body's ability to cope starts to suffer he said. The hospital recently started a program to focus on dance.
For the first time ever, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has issued guidelines for the management of Type 2 diabetes. Until now type 2 diabetes has been considered an adult onset disease, but pediatricians are seeing more and more children either pre-diabetic or fully engaged in Type 2. Many physicians believe that the increase in type 2 diabetes is directly related to the rise in childhood obesity.
Type 1diabetes is a chronic condition that is also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes. It is often a genetic disease or can be caused by certain viruses. With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin. It is not curable but can be managed.
Type 2 diabetes is much more common and is rising rapidly among children and teens. It now accounts for up to one in three new cases between the ages of 10 and 18.
Why has the AAP decided guidelines are now needed? Because type 2 diabetes was once considered an adult disease- not a childhood disease.
"Few providers have been trained in managing type 2 diabetes in children and, to date, few medications have been evaluated for safety and [effectiveness] in children," says co-author Janet Silverstein, MD, professor of pediatrics at the University of Florida and chief of endocrinology at Shands Hospital in Gainesville.
"This is a real issue in the pediatric population. It's something that many of us as pediatricians didn't grow up with because we just didn't see it very often," she says.
Proper diagnosis is paramount to the recommended guidelines. Type 1 or type 2 diabetes diagnoses are not always clear-cut and can take time for an accurate diagnosis.
The guidelines recommend giving insulin to patients if it's not clear whether they have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. If type 2 diabetes is confirmed, lifestyle changes along with the medication metformin are recommended. Metformin and insulin are the only two blood sugar-lowering medicati
Could spending three more minutes at the dinner table really help lower childhood obesity? According to a new study published in the journal Economics and Human Biology, more time equals less weight.
Scientists at the University of Illinois looked at ways low-income families could help their kids achieve and maintain a healthy weight. They discovered family mealtimes together could be linked to the kid's weight.
The study involved 200 family mealtimes. Children who regularly sat down and had their meals with the family were more likely to have a normal weight than those who cut mealtimes short. Even three minutes more at the table had an impact.
"Children whose families engaged with each other over a 20-minute meal four times a week weighed significantly less than kids who left the table after 15 to 17 minutes. Over time, those extra minutes per meal add up and become really powerful," study author Barbara Fiese, director of the University of Illinois' Family Resiliency Program, said in a statement.
The findings suggest that families who have a positive attitude about mealtimes together and consider it an important part of family life, were less likely to have obese or overweight children. Behaviors such as talking and interacting together also seemed to contribute to the children's healthier weight.
Flese noted that teaching low-income families how to make the most of mealtimes together was worthwhile in helping families make the necessary changes needed to combat obesity.
"This is something we can target and teach. It's much more difficult to change such factors as marital status, maternal education, or neighborhood poverty," she said.
Our changing society also offers new challenges for families.
"It's also important to recognize the increasing diversity of families and their sometimes complex living arrangements that may challenge their abilities to plan ahead and arrange a single time to commun
If your child frequently gets colds, sinus infections and laryngitis you may have considered having his or her adenoids removed to see if the infections would lesson. A new study from the Netherlands says you might want to rethink that.
According to Chantal Boonacker, who led the research team at the University Medical Center Utrecht, waiting has no bad consequences. The watchful waiting approach seems to be as effective as surgery.
Adenoids are tissue that sit in the back of the nasal cavity and are above the roof of the mouth. You can see your tonsils when you look in the mirror and open your mouth, but you can't see your adenoids. Their purpose is to help fight infection in children and usually shrink and disappear by adulthood.
Sometimes the tissue becomes enlarged. A surgery called an adenoidectomy may be performed in children with a chronic cough and cold. The study suggests that in children with respiratory problems, delaying the surgery may be a smart financial and medical decision.
The research included 111 children, age one to six, who'd had an average of nine or ten respiratory infections - including colds and sinus infections - in the past year.
Half of them were randomly chosen to have an adenoidectomy right away and the rest were assigned to a watchful waiting strategy over the next two years.
In a report released in 2011, the study team found no difference in future respiratory infections or ear problems in kids who did or didn't have immediate adenoidectomy. Of the 57 kids initially allocated to watchful waiting, 23 went on to have their adenoids removed.
Researchers also looked into the expense of the two medical approaches. Boonacker and her colleagues found that once surgery, drugs, doctors' appointments and family expenses were considered, immediate adenoidectomy was about one and a half times more expensive than waiting - at an average of $1,995 versus $1,216. The cost may be different i
The flu season is off to an early and dangerous start. ;Southern and southwestern states, in particular, are reporting large numbers of people with the flu in ER rooms and doctor's offices seeking relief. Many doctors have said that they began seeing patients with the flu or flu-like symptoms as early as Thanksgiving and a few even said they saw patients in September. That's far ahead of the normal beginning of the flu season in December and January. Typically, the flu just makes people very sick for a week or two, but it can also be deadly for the very young, the elderly and people with compromised immune systems. However, even people who are otherwise healthy can suffer a fatal bout with the virus. Max Schwolert , a 17-year-old athletic boy in Flower Mound, Texas, died over the holidays from a staph infection that developed after he became ill with the flu. The heartbreaking death of the popular teen has prompted many of his friends and community to get their flu shot. Even though the flu season is currently active, it's not too late to get a flu shot. Understand, some people still get the flu even when they've been vaccinated- but they usually have less severe symptoms. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) is saying that this flu season is stronger than usual and is expected to continue to get worse. Anyone over the age of 6 months can and should receive the flu vaccine. Besides your pediatrician or doctor's office, there are other locations that are providing flu shots such as local pharmacies, clinics and health departments. As more and more people decide to get vaccinated, supplies of the vaccine could start being in short supply so don't delay. Other steps you can take to help prevent getting or spreading the flu are: Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it. Wash your hands often with soap and water. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Avoid touchin
Add recess to reading, writing and arithmetic says a report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP.) The pediatricians believe that recess can be as important to a child's overall development as standard classes and should never be denied, especially as a punishment.
"We consider it essentially the child's personal time and don't feel it should be taken away for academic or punitive reasons," said Dr. Robert Murray, who co-authored the new policy statement for the AAP.
According to the authors, recess is a crucial and necessary component of a child's development.
Other reasons given for the importance of recess are that it helps students develop better communication skills, counteracts the time sitting in classrooms, and may foster skills such as cooperation and sharing - all good things.
The authors noted that previous research has found that children are able to pay closer attention and perform tasks better after a recess break. A year ago, 14 studies were reviewed and researchers found that kids who get more exercise do better in school. Recess and sports related activities offer children the opportunity to exercise and burn off excess energy. They also get a chance to recharge their brains and bodies.
Other organizations have recommended that children need recess as well. The American Heart Association and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CPSC) both call for schools to offer recess to kids. You might think that recess in schools is a given, but in a 2011 survey of 1,800 elementary schools, researchers discovered that a third of the schools did not offer recess to their third-graders. However, most schools do offer recess of between 15 and 30 minutes once or twice a day.
Is there a particular time of day that helps kids most? Before lunch seems to be the consensus from government agencies, CPSC and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Previous studies have found
I hear it just about everywhere I go. People telling me that either they've just got over a bad cold or their child has. Most parents I know pick up a cold from their child who brings it home after catching it from another child at school. That's how these things go, you have it, I have it, we all have it. And yes, I just got over a bad cold.
One of the ways you can help your child recover a little faster from a cold is to make sure he or she has plenty of fluids. Fluids can prevent dehydration and thin mucus, helping to unclog a stuffy nose.
What fluids will help? Good choices are:
- Water. Water is the easiest fluid to offer a sick child. Bottled or tap water is fine.
- Fruit juices. Fruit juice is also a good choice when your child isn't feeling well, but remember that some juices can be too acidic on an upset tummy and a little harsh on a sore throat. It's probably best to hold off on citric juices like orange and pineapple till your little one is well. Apple or grape juice may be more soothing. If your child is dehydrated, get an oral rehydration solution like Pedialyte or Infalyte instead. Fruit juice doesn't have the right mix of sugar and salts to treat dehydration.
- Decaffeinated tea. Tea is a good choice when your child has a sore throat. A warm cup of tea with a little honey is comforting to a sore throat and can help ease coughing. If you add honey make sure that your child is over 1 year old.
- Milk. Many people believe that milk can sour the stomach when youre sick. Not true. Milk does not cause a sour stomach or mucus build-up. In fact, the protein, calories, and fat in milk can help keep up your sick child's strength.
Are there fluids your child should avoid? Caffeinated drinks never good
Most people probably associate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with men and women who have been in battle during war or experienced a traumatic life-changing event such as 9-11.
A new study says that children who are victims of bullying can also suffer from PTSD and the effects can last into adulthood. The study, published by Thormod Idsoe, Atle Dyregrov, and Ella Cosmovici Idsoe, found that about 33 % of bullying victims suffer from PTSD. In addition, 40 to 60 % of adults who have been bullying victims suffer from high levels of the signs of PTSD as well.
PTSD can have a very disruptive effect on ones daily living. PTSD is a mental health disorder defined by nightmares, severe anxiety, flashbacks, uncontrollable thoughts about the event, and avoidance behavior.
"Pupils who are constantly plagued by thoughts about or images of painful experiences, and who use much energy to suppress them, will clearly have less capacity to concentrate on schoolwork," Idsoe said in a statement. "Nor is this usually easy to observe - they often suffer in silence."
Researchers at the University of Stavanger, in Norway, analyzed data from 963 students who were 14-15 years old. While boys were more likely to report they were being bullied, they found that girls were more likely to display PTSD symptoms.
Of the students who reported being bullied, 27.6% of boys and 40.5 % of girls had symptoms of PTSD. Researchers were not sure why some bullied children suffered from PTSD and some did not. "We...found that those with the worst symptoms were a small group of pupils who, in addition to being victims of bullying, frequently bullied fellow pupils themselves," Idsoe said. "One explanation, for example, could be that difficult earlier experiences make the sufferers more vulnerable, and they thereby develop symptoms and mental health problems more easily."
What are some of the symptoms of PTSD?
Like many adults, kids tend to be more generous when someone else is aware of their actions. A new study from Yale University says age isn't really a factor when it comes to giving.
Previous research with adults has shown that they are more likely to act in ways that will benefit their reputation if they know someone else is aware of their actions. If they know that their actions are going to be made public, they also tend to be more generous compared to when they are giving anonymously.
Research on children has been rather scant in relation to this topic. The researchers at Yale University decided to see if young children were as inclined to be more generous when they knew their actions were being watched as adults.
According to the results of the study, scientists have concluded that children view generosity pretty much as adults do.
Researchers gave stickers to 5-year-old children who had the option of sharing one or four of the stickers with another child of the same age. The children were more generous when they could see the recipient than when the recipient was hidden. They were also more generous when they had to give the stickers in a transparent container rather than in one where the stickers could not be seen. No matter how many stickers the children were allowed to keep for themselves, the results were the same when they were ask to give others stickers. If they could see who was getting the stickers they gave more. If the amount of stickers they were giving, could be seen by others they gave more. If not- they gave less.
The scientists deduced from these results that children as young as five years of age are able to make strategic decisions about whether to be generous or not if no one sees their gift.
"Although the frequency with which children acted antisocially is striking, the conditions under which they chose to act generously are even more interesting and suggest that children
Nesquik, a popular chocolate powder, has been voluntarily recalled by its maker Nestle USA because of possible salmonella risk.
The company said that the recalled Nesquik canisters are the 10.9, 21.8 and 40.7-ounce sizes. The products were produced in early October and sold at retailers around the country.
Nestle says it is issuing the recall after its ingredient supplier, Omaya Inc., decided to recall some of the calcium carbonate used in the product due to possible Salmonella contamination. So far there have been no reported illnesses reported.
The affected products have a "Best if sold by" date of October 2014.The recall includes the following products and unit production codes, which are located on the bottom of the canister.
-40.7 ounce powder with UPC 0 28000 68230 9 2282574810 2282574820
-21.8 ounce powder with UPC 0 28000 68090 9 2278574810 2278574820 2279574810 2279574820 2284574820 2284574830 2285574810 2285574820 2287574820 2289574810 2289574820
-10.9 ounce powder with UPC 0 28000 67990 3 2278574810
No other varieties of Nesquik powder are being recalled.
Consumers who have bought the any of the products listed above should not use them and can return them for a refund. You can also contact Nestle Consumer Services if you have any questions at (800) 628-7679.
Salmonella recalls are not uncommon in the food industry. Most recently a salmonella outbreak at the country's largest organic peanut processing plant lead to a major recall of peanut butter and other nut products over the past two months.
The most common symptoms of Salmonella infection are diarrhea, abdominal cramps and fever, which develop within eight to 72 hours of eating or drinking contaminated food. The illness usually lasts for four to seven days and most people recover without treatment. However, salmonellosis can be severe or even life threatening for infants, older people, pregnant women and those with w
I first heard about the drug, ivermectin, as a paste wormer for horses. It kills parasites. I then discovered that oral ivermectin has been used for some time, as a last resort when over the counter and prescription head lice shampoos have not been effective. A new study suggests that ivermectin lotion may be the answer parents have been searching for when it comes to controlling head lice.
Researchers said that a single 10-minute hair application eliminated head lice in nearly 3 out of 4 children. The lotion is sold under the brand name Sklice by Sanofi Pasteur, which paid for the study.
Using a lotion with 0.5 percent ivermectin, the researchers found that after 14 days it had worked in 73.8 percent of 141 volunteers - most of whom were children younger than 12. In comparison, 17.6 percent of the 148 kids (and a handful of adults) whose hair was treated with a drug-free form of the lotion were louse-free after two weeks.
Lotions were applied to dry hair and then rinsed out after 10 minutes. The immediate success rate, judged the day after the lotion application, was 94.9 percent in the test group and 31.5 percent in the control group.
"The advantage of it is, it's a one-application, one-shot treatment," lead author Dr. David Pariser of Eastern Virginia Medical School, in Norfolk, told Reuters Health.
The study involved children from 11 states and did not compare the ivermectin to any other treatment. But in a previous study where ivermectin was tested against other drugs, Pariser and his colleagues note that ivermectin showed a similar one-day success rate of 92.4 percent while malathion, an insecticide sometimes used to treat lice, cleared 82.4 percent of patients after one day.
The FDA approved Sklice, in February 2012, for topical treatment of head lice in patients 6 months or older. The lotion is only available by prescription. On the website, sklice.com, common side effects are listed as eye redness
For years scientific studies have indicated that girls are entering puberty at a younger age. Now a new study, focused on boys, says they too are starting puberty up to 2 years earlier than the average age.
The study was conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP.) It involved more than 4,100 boys, aged 6 to 16, in 41 states. Pediatricians were recruited to participate in the study and reported their findings to the research network. Half of the boys were white, and the rest were evenly divided among African-American and Hispanic boys. The pediatrician visits took place between 2005 and 2010.
What the researchers found was that the white boys started puberty at age 10, a full year and a half earlier than what has been considered the normal average. The African-American boys started puberty at about 9 years of age, about 2 years earlier than the average. The Hispanic boys were about 10 years old -the average age for boys of Mexican American heritage. The new study also included boys from other Hispanic backgrounds.
Puberty development was measured by examining the size of the boys testes and the start of pubic hair growth. Testes enlargement was seen at age 6 in nine-percent of white boys, almost 20 percent in African-American boys, and seven-percent in Hispanic boys.
Pubic hair growth started about a year later than testicle enlargement in all groups. That's about the normal time pubic hair growth begins, but it began at an earlier age in conjunction with the testes growth.
So what does this mean for young boys?
"If it's true that boys are starting puberty younger, it's not clear that means anything negative or has any implications for long-term," said Adelman, a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics' committee on adolescence. But it might be advantageous for parents to talk their young boys sooner about the birds and bees. Children this young are not always prepared for the
I just like the sound of this; a mother's kiss can dislodge a foreign object in her kid's nose. It doesn't quite have that warm and fuzzy feeling of there's nothing sweeter than a mother's kiss, but it got my attention.
So, you're probably wondering, What the heck does a mother's kiss have to do with anything stuck up a child's nose?
New research suggests that an old home remedy known as the mother's kiss is reliable when it comes to removing a foreign object in a child's nose. A mother's kiss was first described in the mid-60s and here's how it works.
1) The parent or caretaker places their mouth over their child's mouth while holding the clear nostril closed with one finger.
2) The parent or caretaker blows into the child's mouth.
3) The breath forces the object out of the blocked nostril.
That's the goal anyway. Sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn't but apparently most of the time it does.
The new study analyzed results from eight published reports where caregivers used the mother's kiss on children aged 1 to 8. All in all, the technique was effective with no complications. The success rate approached 60%. The findings appear in the Canadian Medical Association Journal.
Children often put things up their nose, in their mouths, in their ears- anywhere there is an opening. Nina Shapiro, MD, of Mattel Children's Hospital UCLA in Los Angeles says the mother's kiss can work. It is more important that there were no adverse events such as bleeding or pushing the object further up the nostril. According to the findings of this study, the worst thing that can happen is that it doesn't work.
Other physician's say parents and caregivers should use caution when trying this old-fashion technique. Robert Glatter, MD, an emergency room doctor at Lenox Hill Hospital, in New York City says you shouldn't try the mother's ki
Nearly 7 million children in the United States suffer with asthma. While allergies and asthma are two different conditions, allergies often trigger asthma. Allergy shots can be very helpful in managing asthma and allergies, but usually require a 3 to 5 year commitment.
Polish researchers now say long-term control of allergic asthma can occur after only three years of allergy shots, instead of the currently recommended five years.
Dr. Iwona Stelmach of the Medical University of Lodz in Poland and colleagues said immunotherapy, or allergy shots, can alter the progression of allergic disease. Treatment, Stelmach said, alleviates patients of symptoms, while preventing asthma and the development of other allergies.
"The recommended duration of immunotherapy for long-term effectiveness has been three to five years," Stelmach, the study's lead author, said in a statement. "Our research shows that three years is an adequate duration for the treatment of childhood asthma associated with house dust mites. An additional two years adds no clinical benefit."
Dr. James Sublett, an allergist who is chairman of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology's Indoor Environment Committee, said not only does the shorter period of shots provide long-term therapeutic benefits for both children and adults, it can reduce total healthcare costs by 33 percent to 41 percent.
"It has long been observed that the effectiveness of allergy shots continue long after treatment has been completed," Sublett said. "
The Polish study was published in the Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.
Allergy-shots help build the immune system to fight specific allergens.
Some of the most common allergens are dust mites, pet dander, pollen, molds and cockroaches. Certain foods can also cause an allergic reaction as well as insect stings, medicines and chemicals.
The shots contain a purified form of the allergens t
A recent recall for peanut butter manufactured by Sunland Inc., and sold at Trader Joe's, has expanded its list of grocery stores and nuts and butters. The peanut butter originally recalled isTrader Joe's Creamy Salted Peanut Butter.
Sunland Inc. has widened its recall of peanut butter and almond butter to include cashew butters, tahini and blanched and roasted peanut products. The company, which sells its nuts and nut butters to large groceries and other food distributors around the country, recalled products under multiple brand names last month after salmonella illnesses were linked to Trader Joe's Creamy Salted Valencia Peanut Butter, one of the brands it manufactures.
In addition to Trader Joe's, the recall includes some nut butters and nut products sold at Whole Foods Market, Target, Safeway, Fresh & Easy, Harry and David, Sprouts, Heinen's, Stop & Shop Supermarket Company, Giant Food of Landover, Md. and several other stores. Some of those retailers used Sunland ingredients in items they prepared and packaged themselves.
The FDA has listed product names in alphabetical order on their website at http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/CORENetwork/ucm320413.htm.
The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said there are now 30 salmonella illnesses in 19 states that can be traced to the Trader Joe's peanut butter. No other foods have been linked to the illnesses, but Sunland recalled other products manufactured on the same equipment as the Trader Joe's product.
Some of the brand names included in the recall are Target's Archer Farms, Safeway's Open Nature, Earth Balance, Fresh & Easy, Late July, Heinen's, Joseph's, Natural Value, Naturally More, Peanut Power Butter, Serious Food, Snaclite Power, Sprouts Farmers Market, Sprouts, Sunland and Dogsbutter.
Sunland's recall includes 10
You might think that all overweight kids eat more calories than thinner kids, but according to a new study, you'd be wrong.
Younger children who are overweight do consume more calories than their thinner peers, but older overweight kids may actually eat fewer calories than their healthy-weight counterparts.
"The message for society and parents is: Don't assume that a child who's overweight is overeating. Obesity isn't just a simple matter of eating more," said study author Asheley Cockrell Skinner, an assistant professor of pediatrics at the University of North Carolina, in Chapel Hill. "Be sympathetic. Overweight children reported eating fewer calories, and to lose weight, these kids have to eat even less. It's probably even harder for them to lose weight than we give them credit for."
The study included dietary information from nearly 13,000 children between the ages of 1 and 17. The information came from U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted from 2001 to 2008. The population included in this study is representative of the U.S. population.
The food-consumption data was collected on two separate days. Children and their parents were asked to recall what the child had eaten in the last 24 hours and how much they ate of any particular food. The researchers had a number of representative measuring devices to try to get the best approximation of portion size that they could.
In the younger kids researchers found that obese and overweight children did in fact eat more calories. For example, in 3- to 5-year-olds, overweight girls consumed an average of 1,721 calories a day compared to 1,578 calories a day for their healthy weight peers. In boys of the same age, the overweight group consumed 1,809 calories a day vs. 1,668 calories a day for the normal-weight children.
But the older obese and overweight children actually ate fewer calories than the thinner kids. Between the ages of 12 and 14
Everyone knows by now that smoking is bad for your health, but there are people who will still argue that second-hand tobacco smoke isn't harmful to those to have to inhale it. If you're an adult you can choose to leave a smoky environment. However, if you're a child you're pretty much at the mercy of the smoking adults in the household. If you're a child with the flu, all that smoke could be making you even sicker.
Children who have been hospitalized with the flu, and come from homes where they've been exposed to second-hand smoke, are more likely to need intensive care and a longer stay before they are released according to a small new study published in The Journal of Pediatrics.
Researchers analyzed more 100 children hospitalized with flu in the state of New York. They found that those exposed to second-hand smoke were five times more likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit and required a 70 percent longer stay in the hospital, compared to the kids not exposed to smoke.
"People are being a bit complacent and thinking that because they don't see smoking as often that it's not a problem anymore," said Dr. Karen Wilson, of Children's Hospital Colorado, in Aurora, who led the study. "But we still need to be vigilant about protecting kids from second-hand smoke."
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that passive smoking can have a huge impact on children. According to the CDC, second-hand smoke causes ear infections, breathing problems, and lung infections in children and leads to hospitalization of up to 15,000 kids-under the age of 18 months-every year.
The study is the first of its kind to look at the effect of second-hand smoke on kids with influenza.
Wilson and her team looked at hospital records for 117 kids admitted for influenza to a New York hospital between 2002 and 2009.
Second-hand smoke exposure was reported on the charts of 40 percent of the kids - slightly lowe
My grandmother, mother and sister all swore that cranberry juice helped prevent bladder infections. Looks like my maternal side of the family may have been right about the preventative powers of the mighty little cranberry.
Researchers have found that cranberry juice made with high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PACs) cut kids' risk of repeat urinary tract infections by two-thirds, versus a comparison juice.
Before you run out to the grocery store and buy a bottle of cranberry juice, the ones that were used in the study were not of the supermarket garden variety. The juice used for the study contained high levels of the key ingredient, proanthocyanidins. PACs are believed to be the compound that gives cranberries their bacteria fighting preventative punch.
Many of the juices found on grocery shelves are packed with sugar and mixed with other juices. The PACs levels are more likely to be lower.
Researchers at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada, enlisted 40 children who had at least 2 urinary tract infections (UTI) in the past year. They randomly assigned the kids to drink one of two juices made for the study: a cranberry juice rich in PACs or a juice free of all "cranberry products."
Over the next year, kids who drank the cranberry juice with high PACs had UTIs at a rate of 0.4 per child, compared with 1.15 in the comparison group.
The power of cranberries against UTIs "was initially regarded as an old wives' tale," said Dr. Hiep Nguyen of Boston Children's Hospital, who was not involved in the study.
But Nguyen said he now often recommends cranberry - either juice or supplements - when kids have recurrent UTIs.
"It can be a great alternative to prophylactic (preventive) antibiotics," Nguyen said.
UTIs are very common in children. By the time the child is 5 years old, about 8% of girls and about 1-2% of boys will have had at least one episode.
UTIs are caused when
Kids across the country are about to start the 2012-2013 school year. Emotions will range from pure excitement to apprehension as children either begin or continue their journey into the world of classrooms, teachers and homework. If your family hasn't begun the transition from summer vacation to school day routine it's not too late to start!
Creating a daily routine, before school starts, can help parents and kids work through any adjustments that need to be made before deadlines have to be met.
Begin by adjusting sleep times. Move bedtime back to an earlier time and set an alarm for waking up. Children and adults need a good night's rest to be able to think and perform at their best. Most kids between 5 and 12 get about 9.5 hours a night, but experts agree that most should be getting 10 or 11 hours each night. Teens need about 9.5 hours of sleep a night. Of course, sleep is an individual thing and some kids need more or less than others. You know your child best and can adjust accordingly.
During the summer months mealtimes can fluctuate a lot. Begin having meals together at times that will work with the school year schedule. Cut back on snacking throughout the day and experiment with quick and healthy meals. If your child will be taking their lunch to school, now is a good time to start planning what those lunches will be.
Discuss after-school activities and create a schedule of who will need to be where at a specific time. A calendar or chalkboard in the kitchen, with everyone's schedule, is great for keeping track of each day's events.
Another area where a summer routine may change during the school year is children's chores and responsibilities. Adjustments may need to be made depending on after school activities and homework. By starting the new routine now you can get your child's input on what they think they can handle - see how it goes - and make any changes you think will help make the transition a little easier.
My grandmother used to say a little honey was the best thing to stop a cough. A new study, published in the September issue of Pediatrics confirms what mothers and grandmothers have been saying for decades; a couple of teaspoons of honey soothes the throat, stops the coughing and helps you sleep better.
It's tough for parents to find an over-the-counter solution to treat colds and coughs. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicines don't work for children younger than 6 years and may pose risks. The FDA takes a similar stance.
In the new study, 270 children aged 1 to 5 with nighttime cough due to simple colds received one of three types of honey or a non-honey liquid of similar taste and consistency 30 minutes before bedtime. Parents completed questionnaires about their child's cough and sleep on the night before the study began and then again the night after their kids were treated.
Children received either 2 teaspoons of eucalyptus honey, citrus honey, Labiatae honey, or similar-tasting silan date extract 30 minutes before bed. All kids did better the second night of the study, including those given the date extract. But children who received honey coughed less frequently, less severely, and were less likely to lose sleep due to the cough when compared to those who didn't get honey.
The study was co-funded by the Honey Board of Israel.
Not only were the children able to sleep better, parents were able to sleep through the night as well. That's a huge relief especially for parents who have to be at the office or on the job site the next day.
Mild coughing isn't always a bad thing: it helps clear mucus from the airway. But an acute cough can be relentless - causing vomiting and gasping for air.
Honey can be part of a supportive care regimen for children with colds, says Alan Rosenbloom, MD. He is a pediatrician in private practice in Baldwin,
With 241 cases of West Nile virus and four related deaths reported so far this year, the United States is experiencing the biggest spike in the mosquito-borne illness since 2004, health officials report.
As of August 1, Texas has confirmed 111 human cases of West Nile and three deaths.
Mississippi and Oklahoma are also seeing earlier activity than usual. Overall, 42 states had detected West Nile virus infections in people, birds or mosquitoes as of July 31, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said Wednesday.
"It is not clear why we are seeing more activity than in recent years," Dr. Marc Fischer, medical epidemiologist with agency's Arboviral Diseases Branch, said in a CDC news release. "Regardless of the reasons for the increase, people should be aware of the West Nile virus activity in their area and take action to protect themselves and their family."
Typically, the greatest risk for infection with West Nile virus occurs from June through September, with cases peaking in mid-August. But changes in the weather, the number of infected mosquitoes and human behavior can all influence when and where outbreaks of the virus occur, the CDC noted.
So what can you do to protect your family against the potentially deadly virus?
The CDC recommends:
Other suggestions include:
Once thought to be under control, Whooping Couch is on the rise. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said Thursday that nearly 18,000 cases have been reported so far. That's twice the number reported at this point last year. At this pace, the number for the entire year will be the highest since 1959, when 40,000 illnesses were reported.
Nine children have died, and health officials called on adults - especially pregnant women and those who spend time around children - to get a booster shot as soon as possible.
"My biggest concern is for the babies. They're the ones who get hit the hardest," said Mary Selecky, chief of the health department in Washington, one of the states with the biggest outbreaks. Washington and Wisconsin have reported more than 3,000 cases each, and high numbers have been seen in a number of other states, including New York, Minnesota and Arizona. Texas is also reporting a higher number of cases than normal.
Health investigators are trying to figure out what's going on, and theories include better detection and reporting of cases, some sort of evolution in the bacteria that cause the illness, or shortcomings in the vaccine.
The vaccine that had been given to young children for decades was replaced in the late 1990s following concerns about rashes, fevers and other side effects. While the new version is considered safer, it is possible it isn't as effective long term, said Dr. Anne Schuchat, who oversees the CDC's immunization and respiratory disease programs.
Whooping cough, or pertussis, is a highly contagious disease that can strike people of any age but is most dangerous to children. Its name comes from the sound children make as they gasp for breath.
Experts believe whooping cough occurs in cycles and peaks every three to five years. But they have been startled to see peaks this high. Vaccinations are supposed to tamp down the amount of infection in the population and make the val